Obesity is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. With increasing prevalence in adults and children authorities view it as one of the most serious public health issues of the 21st century. Obesity occurs when the body’s energy stores are too large. While it is a medical condition it is also a prevalent nutritional concern in prospering countries and cases continue to increase among young. Because of the storage excess body fat accumulates to the extent that it has an adverse effect on health. It can lead to reduced life expectancy and  increases the likelihood of various other diseases. In particular heart disease, type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, certain cancers and osteoarthritis are concerns. Obesity is most commonly caused by food energy intake exceeding output over long periods of time. This combined with lack of physical exercise and genetic susceptibility are the common culprits although a few cases are caused primarily by genes, endocrine disorders, medications or psychiatric illness. The environmental factors are more important than the genetic in most cases.  It had long been popular thought that obesity was an issue of slow metabolism.  Although obese people tend to have a lower resting metabolic rate, obese people overall have a greater energy expenditure than their thin counterparts due to the energy required to maintain an increased body mass.

Decrease in intake and increase in physical exercise are the standard treatment for obesity. Moreover, it is crucial to improve the  quality of the diet. Reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods like those high in fat and sugars and increasing the dietary fiber intake. To supplement this or in case of failure, anti-obesity drugs may be taken to reduce appetite or inhibit fat absorption. In severe cases, surgery is performed or an intragastric balloon is placed to reduce stomach volume and/or bowel length, leading to earlier satiation and reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.

Clinical Studies:

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